PART I -SPANISH RULE
1. SPANISH RULE
Spanish rule in Pangasinan began in 1583. This was the year the Spaniards established the Lingayen encomienda. By that time, there were already settlers in Dagupan. For the Spanish to collect tax from the Dagupan settlers effectively, they placed the settlements under the Lingayen encomienda.
The settlers paid a total tax of 1,000 tributes. The rate of taxation was one tribute per family. This means that in 1583, there was no less than 1,000 families settled in Dagupan.
In 1590, the Augustinian missionaries arrived in Dagupan. They made the settlement into a regular town that year. They gave it the name of Bacnotan.
2. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION
Dagupan has an area of 3723 hectares. It constitutes the central region of the shoreline of the Lingayen Gulf.
Four major rivers and their tributaries crisscross its land area. These rivers include the Agno, Toboy, Dawel and Tanap. All these four rivers empty into the China Sea through a common delta. This delta is known as the SABANGAN between PUGARO and BONUAN GUESET.
In the beginning, much of the land area of Dagupan was swamp. By 1900, the site of the public market in the downtown area was still under water. The water was up to the waistline.
3. ORIGIN OF SETTLERS
The rivers, the swamps, and the locality's proximity to the sea attracted the early settlers.
They were fishermen and saltmakers. The sea and the rivers had abundant supply of fish. The swamps were ideal salt pans; they were also good for fishponds for the culture of Bangus. The swamps, too, were thick with nipa palms, while the shoreline was thick with coconut trees.
The nipa palms provided them with roofing materials for their homes. The TUBA of the nipa palms could be made into vinegar and wine. The coconuts gave oil for their lamps and for medicinal purposes.
By their way of life, and the dialect they spoke, the early settlers were believed to have come from Indonesia. The dialect in Flores Island, in Indonesia, is said to be similar to the Pangasinan dialect.
4. EARLY RULERS AND RELIGION
Before the Spanish came, kings and princesses ruled the people of Pangasinan. The last known king to rule the province was King ARI KASIKIS. The seat of his kingdom was believed to have been located in an area now within the territory of SAN CARLOS CITY.
They had a religion of their own. They worshipped a god they called ANA-GAOLEY. Women performed religious worship and rites.
5. THE BARANGGAYS
In coming to Dagupan from their place of origin, they sailed the seas using big boats called BARANGGAYS.
They came by clans. Each clan occupied one BARANGGAY. The head of the clan was called by the Spaniards as CABEZA de BARANGGAY. In the dialect they called him the ANAK-BANWA (son of the sun).
Among Dagupan families, one of the last to be recognized by the Spanish authorities as the CABEZA DE BARANGGAY was Don Pablo Villamil.
The baptismal certificate of his son, Roman Villamil, who was born on November 20, 1867, identified Don Pablo Villamil as a CABEZA de BARANGGAY.
6. PANTAL AND MALUED
The early settlers were settled along the shoreline and the riverbanks. These areas were BONUAN , PANTAL and CALMAY. After the shoreline and the riverbanks were occupied, later settlers moved further inland and occupied fertile agricultural lands. These were Malued, Lasip, Pogo and Bacayao.
From these points, the settlers expanded into the surrounding areas. When the Spanish came, they laid the townsite on the opposite bank of PANTAL.
As PANTAL and BONUAN represent the fishing, salt making and Bangus raising settlements, MALUED, on the other hand, is a good example of the agricultural communities.
In MALUED, aside from rice, the most important crop raised was cane sugar. With the coconuts along the shoreline, and the cane sugar of MALUED, several native industries arose, such as the making of bocayo, puto, and native , and other native cakes.
7. THE IMPORTANCE OF SALT
Salt is very important to man. It gives flavor to his food. He uses it to preserve his fish and meat. Salt is very useful in the manufacturing industries. Above all, salt is needed to balance the various chemical substances in the human body.
In the ancient world, salt was used for religious rites. In the manufacturing days of the Roman empire, salt served the function of money; soldiers of the Roman empire were paid in salt for their services. The payment of the services rendered, in terms of salt, was called SALARIUM, from the Latin word SAL which mean salt. SALARIUM is where we derived the English word SALARY.
8. THE BANGUS INDUSTRY
Bangus culture in Dagupan has grown into a multi-million peso industry. Dagupan Bangus is considered to be the best in the country; it is being exported to California, in the United States.
Among the well-known and best-patronized restaurant in Dagupan are those that serve Dagupan Bangus and other seafoods.
The Bangus Industry depends on the sea. The sea supplies the Bangus pond with salty water. Salty water is carried into the ponds by our rivers during high tide. Dagupan rivers are connected to the China Sea through the SABANGAN.
Also, the sea is the source of the Bangus fry. The Bangus fry is hatched from the eggs of the mother Bangus called AWA. The AWA is a very big Bangus that lives in the depth of the sea.
In the early days, there were AWA in the Lingayen gulf. When the AWA laid eggs, and these eggs are hatched, the Bangus fry stay along the shallow water of the shore, so that they will not be eaten by the big fishes in the sea.
Years ago, people who used to catch Bangus fry along the shore of Lingayen Gulf used to earn much money from the sale of their catch. Too bad, there are no more people catching Bangus fry in the Lingayen Gulf. The AWA have been driven away from the gulf by dynamite fishing.
Dynamite fishing also has killed a great quantity of fish in the gulf. Today, our fishermen catch very little quantity of fish from the gulf as a result of the destruction of fish by dynamite.
9. THEODORO MANAOIS
The sale of Bangus fry to fishpond owners is a big business. It is known among the Dagupenos that this was how THEODORO MANAOIS of BONUAN became a wealthy man.
The MANAOIS clan from Dagupan were migrants from Binmaley. Since the beginning, they were tenders and fishermen.
Sometime in the 1880's Ramon Manaois left Binmaley and migrated to BONUAN. He was a poor man. He hired himself as tender and used to catch fish in the sea. He married Maria de Vera of BONUAN. They never prospered.
Ramon Manaois, and his wife Maria, had a son Theodoro, who as a boy never attended school. He barely studied the CATON and learned how to write by himself. Like his Father, Theodoro was a fishpond tender and a fisherman. He married Leoncia Melendez, also from BONUAN. They had six children: Luis, Cipriano, Antonina, Cirilo, Perfecta and Paula.
For many years the family of Theodoro Manaois lived in Poverty. Then Theodoro got into the Bangus fry business. From his meager income as a fisherman, he joined other partners in leasing some Bangus fry concessions in La Union and Ilocos Norte.
Gradually, Theodoro's finances improved. After he accumulated a more substantial capital from his profits, he went on his own. After years in this business, he was able to accumulate some money to buy some fishponds and put up some capital for a printing press- the Manaois printing press Company. Today this printing press is one of the biggest printing press plants in northern and central Luzon.
What made Theodoro Manaois a very happy man in his old age was the fact that his second son, Cipriano, was elected city Mayor of Dagupan, first in 1967 and the second time in 1971.
Cipriano was the first man from the big barrio of BONUAN to become mayor of Dagupan.
10. TRADE IN DAGUPAN BEGINS
As the settlers began to produce salt, bagoong, dried fish, vinegar, wine and coconuts people from the Ilocos and the inland towns of Pangasinan started to come to Dagupan.
They came by sailboats, bancas, or rafts. There were no roads at that time. Water was the only means of transportation. they came to barter their products. From Ilocos came the mortars, stone grinders, bolos, and home spun cloths. From the inland towns of Pangasinan came palay, corn, mangoes, beans, and other crops.
The sea and the rivers that flow into Dagupan served as excellent trade routes. This was how Dagupan grew to become an important trade center very early in its history.
11. THE MANUFACTURE OF SAILBOATS
Since the beginning, the Dagupan settlers knew how to make boats. It was a matter of necessity. As the volume of trade grew, it became more necessary to make more and bigger boats.
PANTAL was the center of trade by boat. The area , which is on the bank of the river, was a very natural PANTALAN. This was how the barrio got its name . Pantal is short for PANTALAN.
Several Dagupan families were engaged in the sailboat business . They become wealthy from this trade . Among the families were the Arzadons, the Nables, the Zarates, the Favilas and the Laurels.
Fr. Horacio dela Costa, the noted Jesuit historian, claims that about the year 1780, several boat makers from Pangasinan went to apprentice in shipbuilding at the Spanish naval base in Cavite. He said that after they had gained skill, they came back to Pangasinan and put up a shipyard of their own.
Father dela Costa wrote that in 1781, a frigate turned out by the Pangasinan shipwrights was commissioned by the Spanish navy for service in European waters.
In 1856, Sir John Bowring, the British consul in Hong Kong, visited the Philippines to survey the economic potentials of the country. Writing down his observations, he said; "shipbuilding is an important branch in industry, especially on the Agno River."
As of 1972, There is a shipyard on the Agno River in poblacion west of Dagupan, towards Calmay. The yard has two master carpenters Jose Sales from PANTAL, and Onofre Maneclang from Bugallon.
The yard builds vessels for deep-sea fishing. When this writer visited the yard, they were building an 11.5 foot fishing boat, to be powered by two marine engines of 250-horse power each.
They were supposed to finish the boat in ten months. The boat will cost P120,000.00.
12. ILOCANO MIGRANTS
The sailboat trade brought Ilocano migrants in Dagupan. There is an Ilocano community in Calmay and Pantal.
The early Ilocano migrants were assimilated into the Pangasinan culture. Among the first Ilocano migrants to Dagupan was Don Francisco Arzadon. He came from Badoc, Ilocos Norte. He arrived in Dagupan about the year 1770.
He was engaged in the sailboat business. With his profits, he acquired properties in Dagupan and in eastern Pangasinan. As he prospered, the Spanish authorities appointed him as a Kapitan of Dagupan. A captain during the Spanish era was equivalent to mayor today
Don Francisco married Susana Llamas of Dagupan. They have five children: Jose, Marcela, Roman, Patricio, and Esteban.
Jose Arzadon was married to Magdalena Reyna. They have three children: Juana, Florencio, and Eliseo. Juana Arzadon became the wife of Fabian Villamil, a ranking officer of the katipunan and second municipal president of Dagupan under the American Regime. Eliseo Arzadon had three children: Jaime, Fabiana, and Rosario. Jaime Arzadon, Sr. was married to Remedios Benavides. They were the parents of City Councilor Jaime Arzadon, Jr.
Roman Arzadon, Son of Don Francisco, had nine children: Pedro, Gervacio and Gregorio (were three of them). Domingo Arzadon had three Children: Fidel, Cornelio and Francisco. Fidel Arzadon is the father of former City Councilor Lamberto Arzadon.
13. LABOR OF AGUSTINIANS
The early Augustinian missionaries converted the settlers to Christianity. They built a church. They also started the building of roads that connected Dagupan to Lingayen, San Carlos and Mangaldan.
The early road, which connected Dagupan to San Carlos, passed through MALUED and Dinalawan Calasiao.
14. MALONG REBELLION
Our people were made to work in the construction of the church. They were not paid for their labor. They had to bring their own food.
The same thing happened when the roads were built. The people were made to work, without pay, They had to pay taxes, besides rendering free labor.
Andres Malong, the master of the labor camp of Pangasinan, knew that the people of Pangasinan were discontented with the way they were being ruled by the Spaniards.
One day in 1660, Malong had a bitter quarrel with Padre Juan Crespo, the Spanish priest of Binalatongan.
He gathered some discontented men and had the church of Binalatongan burned. This started a rebellion throughout Pangasinan. Malong had allies in Pampanga, the Ilocos Region and the Cagayan Valley. In all he had 40,000 troops under his command,.
In the course of the rebellion, Don Francisco Pulido, the Alcalde of Pangasinan and his wife, were killed by the rebels. After the death of Don Francisco Pulido, the Alcalde, Malong proclaimed himself king. He wanted to restore the old Pangasinan kingdom.
But he became too ambitious. He wanted to conquer even the neighboring Provinces of Pampanga and Ilocos. He spread his soldiers into these regions. When Spanish reinforcements arrived, he realized his mistake. He had very few men left to guard his own territory.
He moved his headquarters to Dagupan and sent out couriers to recall his troops from Ilocos and Pampanga. He gathered them in Dagupan. Unfortunately, not many arrived on time to help him fight the Spaniards.
Malong and his men burned the Dagupan church and the poblacion area. They retreated eastward. The Spanish troops overtook them in the vicinity of Tambak.
A fierce battle was fought. The casualty was heavy. Many of Malong's men perished. The dead were piled up on top of each other.
The Dagupan oral Tradition states: "SINGA 'RA INTAMBAK SO INATEY.' Old folks claim this was how Barrio TAMBAK got its name.
The entire Malong rebellion lasted for two months. Dagupan oral tradition states that the captured rebels were tried in Barrio SALISAY.." DIMAN DA 'RA SINALAYSAY." hence the name SALISAY.
The oral Tradition goes further. It states that some of the rebels were granted pardon. They were released in an area that is now known as BOLOSAN. " DIMAN SO ANGIBOLOSAN ED SIKARA."
The people started calling it NANDARAGUPAN. Don Pablo Mejia, the well-known Pangasinan vernacular writer who edited the TUNONG magazine, claims that NANDARAGUPAN, as the new name of the old BAKNOTAN town, commemorates the gathering of Malong's men in the town in 1660.
But the new name was too cumbersome to pronounce. It consisted of five syllables. In 1720, this was shortened to Dagupan.
14. A- LEGEND OF OTHER BARRIOS
The other early barrios of Dagupan were BONUAN, PANTAL, Pogo, Lasip, Malued, Bakalaw, Karanglaan, Tebeng, Lukaw, Karael, Kalmay, Salapingaw and Pugaro.
A careful study of the names of these barrios indicates that these names originated from any of the following: 1) physical characteristics of the place; 2) some plant or fish that used to be found in quantity in the barrio in the early days, 3) or some event that occurred in the barrio.
As we have seen earlier, TAMBAK, SALISAY, and BOLOSAN are names that indicate some historic event that happened in the localities that eventuality got these names.
The word DAGUPAN, which was derived from the longer word NANDARAGUPAN, belongs with the same class with TAMBAK, SALISAY and BOLOSAN. They stand for some historic event. If the word DAGUPAN were to be classified in the class of TAMBAK, BOLOSAN and SALISAY, then it must have originated from that historic gathering of Malong's men in the old BAKNOTAN town in 1660. Notice that it was only in 1660 or 1661 that our community began to be called NANDARAGUPAN, which word was shortened to DAGUPAN in 1720. In fact, the naming of TAMBAK, BOLOSAN, and SALISAY may have followed after the adaptation of the word NANDARAGUPAN.
PANTAL and BONUAN are names that belong to the same class. PANTAL derived from the word PANTALAN, or pier. This is the place where ships and boats load and unload their cargoes.
BONUAN as a name of the barrio may have originated from either of these two: 1)being located along the seashore, it is where fishing boats are docked as the fishermen come ashore from the sea. When you force the boat to land from the sea, you bump the shoreline with the boat. This action, in a manner of speaking is like MANGIBUBUNO, so the place is BOBOWAY BALOTO. Hence, BONUAN. 2) The other possibility is that BONUAN may have been a place where some fights were fought. This is the oral tradition. But what fight?
Most likely the fights refer to the Muslim crusades. Pantaleon Perez, better known in history as Juan dela Cruz Palaris, recruited some people from Lingayen, Dagupan and San Carlos to fight the Muslims from Mindanao. Muslims from Mindanao used to come to our shores and raid our communities. The history of San Fabian town as written by Fermin U. Imbuido and Jaime P. Dojillo mention this fact.
POGARO and POGO are words of the same origin. FUGAL is the Pangasinan word for a hill; POGO is an old Pangasinan word for a word for a mound that is between the size of a mound (PONGOL) and a hill (PUGARO). The comparative degree for these words is as follows- PONGOL, POGO, POGARO, PALANDEY. In English these are equivalent to a mound, a bigger mound, a hill and a mountain. KARAEL and KALMAY are known to be trees. These trees are still in existence in our place but DANGLA and BAKAYAW are now extinct. DANGLA is a medicinal plant. This is the plant that gave the barrio of CARANGLAAN its name. In the early days, the barrio was called KADANGLAAN. BAKAYAW (pronounced BAKA-YAW) is a tree that has been extinct from Dagupan for the last 100 years. LOCAO seems to have come from the word LUKAN. It is said that there used to be a swamp that used to be a common fishing ground of the people in Lucao where they used to gather LUKAN. LUKAN is a shelled fish.
MANGIN and SALAPINGAO are also words derived from the names of fishes: AYONGIN FOR MANGIN, while PINGAO is for SALAPINGAO.
TEBENG is an action word; it means to bore in the ear, as when you will provide a hole for an earring. It is said that in the early days, there used to live an old woman who used to bore hole on the ear of young girls. The place became known as TEBENGAN, which was shortened to TEBENG.
MALUED, according to popular belief, came from the word LAUER, a kind of vine with pungent leaves used in chewing bettle nut with lime. The barrio is said to have plenty of flowers in ancient times. Lasip is a kind of grass. It became the name of the barrio of Lasip Grande and Lasip Chico.
MAYOMBO is a puzzle. The first syllable MAM, which signifies abundance. It is a place where YOMBO used to abound but what is YOMBO? It is a plant, or a tree that has been long extinct like the BAKAYOU? Could it have been a tree that used to bear fruit of the same family as the LOMBOY?
15. DOMINICANS TAKE OVER
The Dominicans replaced the AUGUSTINIANS, who nursed Dagupan during its infancy, in 1713.
They started a school for children in the convent. The church, as it stands now, was built by Padre Pedro Rama. It was completed in 1816 and dedicated to the memory of Saint John, The Evangelist.
The Dominicans also built the Colegio de San Alberto Magno in Calmay in 1891, and blessed Imelda's Academy in 1938.
16. THE PALARIS REVOLT
Before the British invaded Manila in the 1760s. Pantaleon Perez of barrio KOLILING, Binalatongan (now San Carlos City ), was commissioned by the Spanish military command to recruit men and train them to fight the Muslims in Mindanao. Professor Salvamar Nilmida, a native of San Carlos City, claims that Pantaleon Perez was a college graduate. He studied in one of the colleges in Manila. His father, Gaspar Perez was a Capitan of Binalatongan.
Prof. Nelmida claims that Perez was able to recruit a sizeable number of men from Binalatongan, Lingayen and Dagupan. He trained them to fight in barrio Mamarlaw in Binalatongan.
After training his men, and as they prepared to go to Mindanao, the British invaded Manila. The Spanish civil government was evacuated to Pampanga.
With this development, Perez and his men were unable to Proceed to Mindanao to overtake the crusade against the Muslims.
One of the conditions agreed upon by Perez and the Spanish authorities, was that he, and his men should be exempted from the payment of taxes after they have undertaken the crusade in Mindanao.
In as much as Perez and his men were unable to undertake the crusade, he and his men were made to pay their taxes, just the same.
Perez got mad. He led his men in an uprising against the Spanish rulers. The rebellion started November 3, 1762 and lasted up to January, 1765.
Perez during the rebellion, adopted the name Juan dela Cruz Palaris. Dagupan became a battle scene in one of the encounters between Palaris and the Spanish forces.
17. THE ANAK-BANWAS
We have been able to track down two ANAK BANWAS among the old Dagupan families. The descendants played various important roles in the political, economic, social and religious growth of the city. One was Don Pablo Villamil of PANTAL; the other was Don Pablo de Venecia of BOLOSAN.
The ANAK- BANWA was a native title, equivalent to the Spanish CABEZA DE BARANGGAY. CABEZA simply denotes a he-man, a chief, and a leader.
The title of ANAK BANWA is very oriental, literally, it means son of the sun. In ancient oriental society, kings were believed to have descended from the God Sun. ANAK-BANWA connotes royalty. At the same time, it has religious meaning, derived from the God Sun.
18. THE VILLAMILS
Don Pablo Villamil, father of Roman Villamil, Is the grandfather of Don Ricardo Villamil, physician-lawyer, and writer-businessman.
As a student, Don Ricardo was a creative writer. He wrote Spanish poetry while a student at the Colegio de San Alberto Magno in Dagupan. He wrote short stories in English while a pre-medical student at the Ateneo University. He won first prize in a national short story writing contest.
He practiced medicine for a while, then dabbled in politics and was a city councilor of Dagupan for several terms. Later he went into business. He formed VIDA, a family corporation engaged in banking, real estate, fishponds, farming, and the movies.
The Villamil clan has produced three Dagupan mayors since the Spanish era; Reginaldo, Fabian and Juan.
Crisostomo Villamil was another colorful member of the clan who contributed much to the economic growth of the community. Then there was Carmen Villamil, classmate- friend of Leonor Rivera, a teacher who became the wife of Don Toribio Jovellanos. Don Crisostomo Villamil, the vernacular novelist, belongs to the clan. So does former city councilor Cesario Villamil.
19. THE DE VENECIAS
The present generation of de Venecias in Dagupan descended from the clan headed by Don Pablo de Venecia of BOLOSAN. He was an ANAK-BANWA.
This clan produced Don Pedro de Venecia, a ranking officer of the Katipunan and a leader of the aglipayan movement in Dagupan. One of his children, Dr. Gualberto de Venecia, was one of the first physician to put up a private hospital in Dagupan.
Another son of Don Pablo was Guillermo de Venecia, several times municipal president of Dagupan. He built the old presidencia building, which to this day is being used as city hall.
Congressman Jose de Venecia, Jr., the incumbent representative of the second district of Pangasinan in the House Of Representatives, is a direct descendant of Don Pablo de Venecia. He is a fourth generation descendant.
20. CAPITAN REGINALDO VILLAMIL
Before the outbreak of the Katipunan revolution, there was a Dagupeno named Reginaldo Villamil. Reginaldo was the father of Dona Carmen Villamil and Don Gaudencio Villamil.
Gaudencio, who was municipal vice president during the administration of municipal president Mariano Laurel, and one time Dagupan Chief of Police, was the father of Juan Crisostomo Villamil y Hortaleza, the classmate of Leonor Rivera.
Juan Crisostomo, the novelist, claims his grandfather, Reginaldo, was a kinsman of Don Pablo Villamil, the CABEZA DE BARANGGAY. Juan Crisostomo has an interesting story about his grandfather, Reginaldo. He says Don Reginaldo was CAPITAN of Dagupan before the Katipunan revolution broke out. One day, there was a Spanish army officer in Dagupan who was late for some mission . He was in such a hurry.
It happened that there were some children playing along his way. In his impatience, he kicked one of the boys, and the child rolled over on the street.
When Don Reginaldo learned about the incident, he had the Spanish army officer arrested and tied to a tree at the plaza.
Abuses, like this one , led the Filipino revolt against Spanish rule. Pangasinenses had a song of contempt against the Spaniards, which ran thus:
ANAI AGTO NANILO:
INGGARIGAR TO'D ALO
ASALUKSOKAY TOMBONG TO.
21. THE SAILBOAT MAGNATES
The peak of trade by sailboat in Dagupan was roughly from 1780 to 1891, a little more than a century. This period represents the year when Father Dela Costa said Pangasinan ship builders went to apprentice at the Spanish naval yard in Cavite, to the establishment of the Manila-Dagupan railroad line.
Various types of ocean-going vessels used to dock in Pantal. The river was full of all kinds of boats, loaded with merchandise from Manila, Bolinao, Vigan and other centers of trade.
Naturally, the Business leaders of that era were the men who were engaged in the sailboat business. As far as we were able to determine, the list of those who operated ocean- going vessels include the following:
Don Francisco Arzadon, Don Sinfroso Zarate, Don Silvestre Laurel, Don Mariano Nable and Macario Favilla.
The sailboat trade strengthened the position of Dagupan as the commercial center of Northern and Central Luzon. Since then, Dagupan began to attract various traders to open different kinds of Businesses in the Community.
At the same time, the availability of transportation between Dagupan and Manila enabled the wealthy Dagupenos to send their children to Manila and abroad to obtain university education. These highly educated Dagupenos became the leaders toward the close of the Spanish era and the beginning of American rule·
22. TAN CO CO
It was at the height of sailboat trade when the first Chinese Traders arrived in Dagupan These were Tan Co Co and his brother Tan Huan.
They arrived in Dagupan about 1867. They came from Amoy, China. They opened a SARI-SARI business, which included hardware, dry goods and other non-perishable commodities.
A few years later, another two brothers of theirs followed. These were Tan San Guioc and Tan Chiek. The four Tan brothers were the neuclus of our Chinese community in Dagupan today
Tan Co Co and Tan Chiek died early. The family business was continued by Tan Huan and Tan San Guioc.
Tan Huan was the father of Felipe Tan, who now operates Taya's hardware. Felipe was married to Amparo de Vera of Calasiao, with whom he has nine children.
Felipe Tan became a Filipino in 1953. Tan San Guioc had four children: Rufo, Senito, Federico, and Eduardo Tan.
As more and more Chinese merchants arrived in the community, the Tans gradually gave up their other lines of merchandise and concentrated in hardware. Today the Tans dominate the trade in Dagupan. The younger Tans have since then become Filipinos.
23. THE RAILROAD LINE
Another factor that contributed to the fast economic growth of Dagupan was the construction of the Manila-Dagupan railroad line. Its construction was completed in 1891.
Immediately after the completion of the terminal, Dagupan became the gateway to the North. The railroad line was extended up to the river of Pantal.
Products from Ilocos and Bolinao, that were bound for Manila, were brought by sailboat to Dagupan. These were transferred to railroad cars in Pantal. From there, they were transported to Manila over land.
24. SAN ALBERTO MAGNO
Aside from economic factor, the railroad terminals enriched the social and cultural history of Dagupan as well.
The Dominican order was quick to realize the tremendous significance of the railroad terminal. They realized that it made Dagupan the true commercial, and hence, the population centers of northern and central Luzon.
In response to this vision, they decided to put up a college - the Colegio de San Alberto Magno located at the foot of Franklin Bridge in Calmay. This was built by Father Vicente Izetqui in 1891. The big flood that hit Pangasinan in 1935 destroyed this college
The products of this college became the leaders of Pangasinan during the Katipunan revolution and the early American regime.
25. DON CRISOSTOMO VILLAMIL
A Dagupeno played an important role in the building of the Manila-Dagupan railroad terminal. His name was Don Crisostomo Villamil. He belonged to the ruling Villamil clan of Pantal.
He was the project engineer of the Manila-Dagupan railroad line. He was the first Filipino to become a mechanical engineer. He studied in England. He assembled the engines of the early trains of the Manila Railroad Company that came from Britain.
As the construction of the project was going on, the crew was stuck in the swamps of Poponto in Bautista town. To make full use for the talents of Villamil, he was ordered to return to Manila and work in Caloocan.
Villamil, who was desirous to connect his native town to Manila early with the railroad line, shouted: "SIGUE DAGUPAN; avera CALOOCAN He defied the order for him to report to Caloocan, and continued the project until it was completed in 1891.
When the katipunan revolution broke out, Don Crisostomo Villamil joined the Fight for Filipino freedom. He was commissioned by General Emilio Aguinaldo to sail by boat to HONG KONG. His mission was to smuggle into the Philippines the arms and ammunition purchased in Hong Kong by Jose Maria Basa. He was very successful in his mission.
26, LEONOR RIVERA
Leonor Rivera is known in history books as the sweetheart of Dr. Jose Rizal, the national hero.
The family of Leonor Rivera stayed in Dagupan for about two years in 1890 and 1891. This was the period when the Manila-Dagupan railroad line was being constructed.
Leonor's parents had a business in Dagupan in those days. According to lawyer-newsman Ernesto Conwi Hidalgo, who made a research on the subject, The Riveras were engaged in the clothing merchandise.
In our investigation on this subject, we discovered that the Riveras were closely linked with the family of Don Alejandro Venteres in Dagupan.
When the Riveras arrived in Dagupan they first resided on a house along Torres Bugallon Avenue, which is now the site of the NATO Commercial Bicycle store. This property belonged to Don Alejandro Venteres at the time, or, if not his property, at least the property of his wife, Dona Rosario Laurel Villamil.
Later, the Riveras moved to a house on what is now Rivera Street. The house belonged to Don Andres Palaganas. It turned out that the Palaganases were related to the Ventereses by affinity. The son of Don Andres, Ciriaco Palaganas, was married to Paula Venteres, a relative of Alejandro Venteres. By the way, Ciriaco Palaganas was one time municipal president of Dagupan.
Leonor had at least two Dagupeno classmates at LA CONCORDIA COLLEGE in Manila. They were Carmen Villamil and Luisa Hortaleza. She used to visit in the homes of these two friends.
Dona Carmen had a piano. Leonor used to play on that piano. It seems it was in the house of Dona Carmen that Leonor met Henry Kipping, the British engineer, with whom she later got married.
Engr. Kipping was the supervising engineer of the Manila-Dagupan railroad line project. He was associated with Engr. Crisostomo Villamil.
By then, Rizal was already deeply involved in the propaganda movement. He was branded as a FILIBUSTERO by the Spanish authorities and he was marked for execution. The hate campaign against Rizal was so intense. The mother of Leonor was alarmed. She thought Leonor would die in sorrow if she would marry Rizal. When she learned that Kipping had fallen in love with her daughter, she was so happy about it. She encouraged Kipping.
When Rizal was abroad, the mother bribed the Dagupan postmaster not to deliver to Leonor Rizal's letter. Instead, she got them and hid them from her daughter.
One day, the mother went on a business trip to Manila. The postman committed the mistake of delivering a letter from Rizal to Leonor. He was chiding her for not answering his letters. She thus discovered what her mother had been doing. Leonor wrote back Rizal, affirming her love to him.
One day, Rizal visited Leonor in Dagupan. On the night of his arrival he serenaded his sweetheart. He wrote a song that they entitled LEONOR. This song was arranged by Dr. Alejandro G. Venteres and translated the text in the vernacular. The Riveras were with the Palaganases at the time on what is now Rivera Street.
It was during this meeting between the two lovers that Leonor explained to Rizal her situation, She explained that her heart belonged to him, but that out of filial duty, she had to obey her mother's wish and marry Kipping. She confided to Rizal her very deep sorrow, and told him that she would not live long away from his side.
Leonor and Kipping were married at the Roman Catholic Church in Dagupan in 1831. After the wedlock, they stayed in the house of Don Roque Bautista on Burgos street. True to her word to Rizal she became ill after sometime.
When Dona Trinidad Rizal heard of Leonor's illness she visited her in Dagupan. Dona Trining sought out her relatives here. The Rizals, on their mother side, were related with the Quintos family in Dagupan. Dona Trining stayed in the Quintos house on Nable street, in PANTAL, which is now the residence of Don Crisologo Zarate.
27. DON DORO, THE KATIPUNERO
There was once a very colorful Dagupeno by the name of Teodoro Villamil, better known as Don Doro.
He was a kinsman of Don Pedro Villamil, the CABEZA DE BARANGGAY of Pantal,. Don Doro was a rich man. He was tall, dashing and handsome. He was a TAJOR. He was a cockfighter, and he played cards well.
During the Katipunan revolution, he was in command of a company. He had a personal bodyguard, Santiago Toledo, who was expert in excrima. Don Doro's company was assigned to guard the SABANGAN in BONUAN, to keep tab of in-coming vessels that may bring into Dagupan upon Spanish soldiers.
One day, Don Doro decided to have a picnic at the SABANGAN with his men. He had a carabao butchered. For this Picnic, the mess sergeant was Hilario Saingan, father of Juan Saingan of Pantal. This is Juan Saingan's version of what happened during that picnic.
"I was about six years old at the time. My father, Hilario Saingan who was the mess sergeant of the company brought me along. The area was surrounded by trenches, where the Katipuneros took over during encounters with the casadores."
"On top of the trenches, the Katipuneros placed coconut husks which were designed in such a manner that when you look at them from a distance, they appeared like sentinels ready for a fight."
"Don Doro also mounted a coconut trunk, which he painted dark brown. In the distance this coconut trunk, looked like a cannon."
"SOMEHOW, THE CASADORES in the town learned of the picnic in SABANGAN. They commandeered one of the sailboats of Don Mariano Nable and sailed for SABANGAN. Obviously, they were out to raid the Katipuneros."
"As the sailboat was approaching the SABANGAN, Don Doro noticed that it was full of casadores. He had his men turn the nose of his coconut trunk cannon towards the approaching vessel. The CASADORES thought it was a real cannon. They got scared and turned the sailboat back to town."
"Don Doro and his men had the most memorable picnic in their lives."
28. END OF SPANISH RULE
Spanish rule ended in Pangasinan on July 23 1898. This was the day General Federico Caballos, commander of the Spanish forces in Pangasinan, surrendered to Katipunan General Francisco Macabulos in Dagupan.
The final fight put up by the Katipuneros in Pangasinan to end Spanish rule in the Province started simultaneously in all the towns where there were Spanish garrisons.
The Katipunan forces in Pangasinan were under the over all command of General Macabulos while the Spanish forces were under the command of General Caballos. The Spanish commander had his command post at the Catholic convent in Dagupan.
Western Pangasinan at that time, was still a part of Zambales. And the Katipunan forces in the west were the command of General Ramon Manalang. A command post was in Alaminos.
The financial against the Spanish force, Manalang and Macabulos was coordinated. The liaison job between the two commanders was undertaken by Don Macario Meneses of BONUAN.
The attack was made on March 7, 1898. The battle in Dagupan lasted for four months and 16 days.
29. ELISEO ARZADON
Eliseo Arzadon was a man very fond of fine horses. Grandson of Don Francisco Arzadon the wealthy sailboat magnate who was one time CAPITAN of Dagupan, Eliseo was a man of princely bearing,
When General Macabulos gave the signal for the Katipuneros to attack on March 7, 1898.Don Eliseo, who was a ranking officer of the Katipunan rode into town.
Astride his white horse, and with a sword in his right hand, he entered the Catholic Church and announced to the stunned CASADORES that the fight is on. Before the enemies could shoot him, he was gone.
30. BATTLE FRONTS
The battle in Dagupan was fought in three fronts. There was a Spanish contingent at the Colegio de San Alberto Magno. This was assigned to guard the western approach to the town.
Another Spanish force was quartered at the Laurel residence at the foot of Quintos Bridge. Its duty was to prevent the entry of the enemies from the eastern approach to the town.
The main bulk of the Spanish army, however was at the Catholic, the command post of General Caballos.
The Katipuneros were ill equipped. For every 50 men, only about four had refills. some had bolos. The rest were armed with PANAOK (a Sharp- Pointed nipa stem which looked like a rifle in the distance.)
Don Juan Solis Galvan, who was commanding officer of a Katipunan contingent that camped in Suit, led the back at the Colegio de San Alberto Magno front.
Don Teodoro Villamil and Don Pedro de Venecia supplied the leadership of the Katipunan forces who attacked the enemies at Quintos Bridge.
The Tagalog forces from Nueva Ecija who were better armed, joined the Dagupan Katipuneros who attacked the Spaniards in the church. Sgt. Santiago Javier was with this group.
In the beginning the Katipuneros were very cautions to advance in their battle positions. they had a rolling trench. This was made of banana trunks, wrapped by sawali with about seven feet diameter when they have to advance, they roll their trench. them the Spaniards start firing at them, they lie flat on the street, protected by their banana trenches.
It was evident that the Katipuneros were prolonging the battle, to wait for Katipunan reinforcements from other towns.
True enough, as the fight dragged on, more and more reinforcements arrived towards the close of the fight, Don Daniel Maramba and his forces from Sta. Barbara and Mangaldan sided with their Dagupan comrades.
By July 21, General Macabulos felt his troops had sufficient strength on account of reinforcements by Katipuneros from various parts of Luzon. He went on an all-out offensive
After an intensive of exchange of fire that Lasted for two nights and one day, General Caballos surrendered. He ran short or supplies and ammunition.
Thus, Spanish rule in Pangasinan ended.
Fighting scene during the Katipunan March in 1838. The KATIPUNERO brought to an end Spanish rule in Pangasinan and ushered in the shortlived Filipino freedom under the rule of President Emilio Aguinaldo,
After the end of Spanish rule, President Aguinaldo appointed Don Juan Solis Galvan, the municipal president of the town. Galvan was a ranking officer of the Katipunan. Galvan Street along which the public market was built was named after him.Go Back to History of Dagupan Outline